Neuroscience

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Caffeine Gets You to the Finish Line Faster – Neuroscience News

Summary: Caffeine supplementation reduces sprint time in a 100-meter dash, a new study reports. Source: Ritsumeikan University At the international level of sport, even the smallest advantage can take an athlete from being a mere participant to a podium finisher. Consequently, athletes try to achieve that competitive edge with the help of performance-enhancing training methods …

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525-Million-Year-Old Fossil Defies Textbook Explanation for Brain Evolution – Neuroscience News

Summary: The fossil of a 525-million-year-old tiny sea creature with a preserved nervous system may solve a century-long debate about how the brains of arthropods evolved. Source: University of Arizona Fossils of a tiny sea creature that died more than half a billion years ago may compel a science textbook rewrite of how brains evolved. …

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What Octopus and Human Brains Have in Common – Neuroscience News

Summary: Octopuses have a massively expanded repertoire of miRNA in their neural tissue, reflecting a similar development to that which occurs in vertebrates. Findings suggest miRNA plays a significant role in the development of complex brains. Source: MDC Cephalopods like octopuses, squids and cuttlefish are highly intelligent animals with complex nervous systems. In “Science Advances”, …

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Major Discovery About Mammalian Brains Surprises Researchers – Neuroscience News

Summary: V-ATPase, a vital enzyme that enables neurotransmission is able to switch on and off randomly, even taking hours-long breaks. Source: University of Copenhagen In a new breakthrough to understand more about the mammalian brain, University of Copenhagen researchers have made an incredible discovery. Namely, a vital enzyme that enables brain signals is switching on …

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How Squid and Octopus Get Their Big Brains – Neuroscience News

Summary: Neural stem cells of cephalopods act in a similar way to those of vertebrates during nervous system development. Source: Harvard Cephalopods — which include octopus, squid, and their cuttlefish cousins ​​— are capable of some truly charismatic behaviors. They can quickly process information to transform shape, color, and even texture, blending in with their …

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Insight Into Brain Function and Breakdowns – Neuroscience News

Summary: The study identifies the synaptotagmin-3 (SYT3) protein as a key molecule that allows for synaptic transmission. The findings could help with the development of treatment for a range of neurological disorders including ASD and epilepsy. Source: Oregon Health and Science University Scientists at Oregon Health & Science University have identified a long-sought gene-encoded protein …

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Scientists Discover Mechanism of Hearing – Neuroscience News

Summary: For the first time, researchers have captured in near-atomic detail the structure of a key part of the inner ear responsible for hearing. The results could pave the way for developing new treatments for those with hearing impairments. Source: Oregon Health and Science University Scientists at Oregon Health & Science University have revealed, for …

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A Huge New Data Set Pushes the Limits of Neuroscience

A Huge New Data Set Pushes the Limits of Neuroscience

So neuroscientists use an approach called “dimensionality reduction” to make such visualization possible—they take data from thousands of neurons and, by applying clever techniques from linear algebra, describe their activities using just a few variables. This is just what psychologists did in the 1990s to define their five major domains of human personality: openness, agreeableness, …

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Study Shows Transmission of Epigenetic Memory Across Multiple Generations – Neuroscience News

Summary: By altering the epigenetic markers on chromosomes, researchers witnessed changed gene expression in offspring and grand-offspring. The findings reveal the occurrence of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Source: UC Santa Cruz Without altering the genetic code in the DNA, epigenetic modifications can change how genes are expressed, affecting an organism’s health and development. The once radical …

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What’s the Best Way to Soothe a Crying Baby? – Neuroscience News

Summary: Using the “transport response” method of carrying a crying baby for a few minutes and then sitting with the child helps reduce crying and heart rate. Source: RIKEN New research published in Current Biology on September 13 demonstrates the importance of carrying crying infants rather than simply holding them. Led by Kumi Kuroda at …

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